Authors: Marco Stecca; Laura Ramirez Elizondo; Thiago Batista Soeiro; Pavol Bauer; Peter Palensky
Recent developments in the electricity sector encourage a high penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). In addition, European policies are pushing for mass deployment of Electric Vehicles (EVs). Due to their non-controllable characteristics, these loads have brought new challenges in distribution networks, resulting in increased difficulty for Distribution System Operators (DSOs) to guarantee a safe and reliable operation of the grid. Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) are promising solutions for mitigating the impact of the new loads and RES. In this paper, different aspects of the BESS’s integration in distribution grids are reviewed.
At first, the physical layer will be considered, focusing on the main battery technologies commercially available and on the power electronics converter. Secondly, the different functionalities that a grid-connected BESS can provide will be investigated, and then its sizing, location and control in distribution network will be discussed. In addition, an overview of actual BESSs installations is given. All in all, this paper aims at providing a comprehensive view of BESSs integration in distribution grids, highlighting the main focus, challenges, and research gaps for each one of these aspects.